The Kv1.3 ion channel acts as a host factor restricting viral entry
Yange Lang 1, Fangfang Li 1, Qiang Liu 2, Zhiqiang Xia 1, Zhenglin Ji 1, Juan Hu 2, Yuting Cheng 1, Minjun Gao 1, Fang Sun 1, Bingzheng Shen 1, Chang Xie 2, Wei Yi 3, Yingliang Wu 1 4, Jing Yao 2, Zhijian Cao 1 4 5
FASEB J. 2020 Sep 10. doi: 10.1096/fj.202000879RR. Online ahead of print.
Virus entry into cells is the initial stage of infection and involves multiple steps, and interfering viral entry represents potential antiviral approaches. Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins controlling cellular ion homeostasis and regulating many physiological processes, but their roles during viral infection have rarely been explored. Here, the functional Kv1.3 ion channel was found to be expressed in human hepatic cells and tissues. The Kv1.3 was then revealed to restrict HCV entry via inhibiting endosome acidification-mediated viral membrane fusion. The Kv1.3 was also demonstrated to inhibit DENV and ZIKV with an endosome acidification-dependent entry, but have no effect on SeV with a neutral pH penetration. A Kv1.3 antagonist PAP-1 treatment accelerated animal death in ZIKV-infected Ifnar1-/- mice. Moreover, Kv1.3-deletion was found to promote weight loss and reduce survival rate in ZIKV-infected Kv1.3-/- mice. Altogether, the Kv1.3 ion channel behaves as a host factor restricting viral entry. These findings broaden understanding about ion channel biology.
Suppression of a pro-apoptotic K+ channel as a mechanism for hepatitis C virus persistence
Jamel Mankouri, Mark L. Dallas, Mair E. Hughes, Stephen D. C. Griffin, Andrew Macdonald, Chris Peers, and Mark Harris
PNAS September 15, 2009 106 (37) 15903-15908; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0906798106
An estimated 3% of the global population are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the majority of these individuals will develop chronic liver disease. As with other chronic viruses, establishment of persistent infection requires that HCV-infected cells must be refractory to a range of pro-apoptotic stimuli. In response to oxidative stress, amplification of an outward K+ current mediated by the Kv2.1 channel, precedes the onset of apoptosis. We show here that in human hepatoma cells either infected with HCV or harboring an HCV subgenomic replicon, oxidative stress failed to initiate apoptosis via Kv2.1. The HCV NS5A protein mediated this effect by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation of Kv2.1. The inhibition of a host cell K+ channel by a viral protein is a hitherto undescribed viral anti-apoptotic mechanism and represents a potential target for antiviral therapy.
G protein-coupled and ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium ion channels are essential for HIV entry
Ravi C. Dubey, Nawneet Mishra & Ritu Gaur
Nature Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 4113 (2019)
The high genetic diversity of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has hindered the development of effective vaccines or antiviral drugs against it. Hence, there is a continuous need for identification of new antiviral targets. HIV exploits specific host proteins also known as HIV-dependency factors during its replication inside the cell. Potassium channels play a crucial role in the life cycle of several viruses by modulating ion homeostasis, cell signaling, cell cycle, and cell death. In this study, using pharmacological tools, we have identified that HIV utilizes distinct cellular potassium channels at various steps in its life cycle. Members of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel family, G protein-coupled (GIRK), and ATP-sensitive (KATP) are involved in HIV entry. Blocking these channels using specific inhibitors reduces HIV entry. Another member, Kir 1.1 plays a role post entry as inhibiting this channel inhibits virus production and release. These inhibitors are not toxic to the cells at the concentration used in the study. We have further identified the possible mechanism through which these potassium channels regulate HIV entry by using a slow-response potential-sensitive probe DIBAC4(3) and have observed that blocking these potassium channels inhibits membrane depolarization which then inhibits HIV entry and virus release as well. These results demonstrate for the first time, the important role of Kir channel members in HIV-1 infection and suggest that these K+ channels could serve as a safe therapeutic target for treatment of HIV/AIDS.
Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection
Samantha Hover,‡ Barnabas King,§ Bradley Hall,‡ Eleni-Anna Loundras,‡ Hussah Taqi,‡ Janet Daly,¶ Mark Dallas,‖ Chris Peers,‡ Esther Schnettler,** Clive McKimmie,** Alain Kohl,** John N. Barr,‡,1 and Jamel Mankouri‡,2
J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 12; 291(7): 3411–3422.
Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K+) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K+ channel modulating agents demonstrated that K+ channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K+ channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) were identified as the K+ channel family mediating BUNV K+ channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease.
A novel role of the antitumor agent tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate as an open channel blocker of KCNQ1/KCNE1
Meikui Wu 1, Makoto Takemoto 2, Huan Luo 1, Jian-Jun Xu 3, Mei-Hong Lu 4, Masaki Kameyama 3, Toru Takumi 5, Wen-Jie Song 6
Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Apr 5;824:99-107. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.02.013. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) is widely known for its antitumor and antiviral properties via the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase. Previously, we found that chronic application of D609 suppressed the K+ channel, KCNQ1/KCNE1, more drastically than expected from its actions on the enzymes, suggesting a direct action of D609 on the channel. Here, we aimed to test this possibility by studying the affinity, specificity, and mechanisms of D609 on KCNQ1/KCNE1. The effect of D609 on KCNQ1/KCNE1 was studied using an in vitro expression system and in native cells, using electrophysiological techniques. We found that D609 rapidly and reversibly inhibited KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 T (HEK293T) cells, in a concentration-dependent manner with a high affinity. D609 neither suppressed endogenous K+ currents in HEK293T cells, nor inhibited the sustained and transient K+ currents of mouse neostriatal neurons, but blocked a KCNQ1/KCNE1-like current in neostriatal neurons. D609 potently blocked IKs, the cardiac KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel, in guinea pig cardiac muscle cells. The action of D609 on KCNQ1/KCNE1 depended on the usage of the channel, suggesting that D609 binds to the channel in the open state. We identified D609 as a potent and specific open channel blocker of KCNQ1/KCNE1. Because KCNQ1/KCNE1 is highly expressed in the heart, the inner ear and the pancreas, D609, when used as an antitumor or antiviral drug, may affect the function of a number of organs in vivo even when used at low concentrations.
ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium channel regulation of viral infections in honey bees
Scott T. O’Neal, Daniel R. Swale & Troy D. Anderson
Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 8668 (2017) Cite this article
Honey bees are economically important pollinators of a wide variety of crops that have attracted the attention of both researchers and the public alike due to unusual declines in the numbers of managed colonies in some parts of the world. Viral infections are thought to be a significant factor contributing to these declines, but viruses have proven a challenging pathogen to study in a bee model and interactions between viruses and the bee antiviral immune response remain poorly understood. In the work described here, we have demonstrated the use of flock house virus (FHV) as a model system for virus infection in bees and revealed an important role for the regulation of the bee antiviral immune response by ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (KATP) channels. We have shown that treatment with the KATP channel agonist pinacidil increases survival of bees while decreasing viral replication following infection with FHV, whereas treatment with the KATP channel antagonist tolbutamide decreases survival and increases viral replication. Our results suggest that KATP channels provide a significant link between cellular metabolism and the antiviral immune response in bees.