Proteinase‐activated receptor 1: A target for repurposing in the treatment of COVID‐19?
Coagulation modifiers targeting SARS-CoV-2 main protease Mpro for COVID-19 treatment: an in silico approach
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection depends on viral polyprotein processing, catalysed by the main proteinase (Mpro). The solution of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro structure allowed the investigation of potential inhibitors. This work aims to provide first evidences of the applicability of commercially approved drugs to treat coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We screened 4,334 compounds to found potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication using an in silico approach. Our results evidenced the potential use of coagulation modifiers in COVID-19 treatment due to the structural similarity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and human coagulation factors thrombin and Factor Xa. Further in vitro and in vivo analysis are needed to corroborate these results.
In Silico Evaluation of the Effectivity of Approved Protease Inhibitors against the Main Protease of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Virus
The coronavirus disease, COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which first emerged in Wuhan, China and was made known to the World in December 2019 turned into a pandemic causing more than 126,124 deaths worldwide up to April 16th, 2020. It has 79.5% sequence identity with SARS-CoV-1 and the same strategy for host cell invasion through the ACE-2 surface protein. Since the development of novel drugs is a long-lasting process, researchers look for effective substances among drugs already approved or developed for other purposes. The 3D structure of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease was compared with the 3D structures of seven proteases, which are drug targets, and docking analysis to the SARS-CoV-2 protease structure of thirty four approved and on-trial protease inhibitors was performed. Increased 3D structural similarity between the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, the HCV protease and α-thrombin was found. According to docking analysis the most promising results were found for HCV protease, DPP-4, α-thrombin and coagulation Factor Xa known inhibitors, with several of them exhibiting estimated free binding energy lower than −8.00 kcal/mol and better prediction results than reference compounds. Since some of the compounds are well-tolerated drugs, the promising in silico results may warrant further evaluation for viral anticipation. DPP-4 inhibitors with anti-viral action may be more useful for infected patients with diabetes, while anti-coagulant treatment is proposed in severe SARS-CoV-2 induced pneumonia.