References for antiviral ion channels drugs

Viral dependence on cellular ion channels – an emerging anti-viral target?

Samantha Hover 1, Becky Foster 1, John N Barr 1, Jamel Mankouri 1

J Gen Virol. 2017 Mar;98(3):345-351. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000712. Epub 2017 Apr 1.


The broad range of cellular functions governed by ion channels represents an attractive target for viral manipulation. Indeed, modulation of host cell ion channel activity by viral proteins is being increasingly identified as an important virus-host interaction. Recent examples have demonstrated that virion entry, virus egress and the maintenance of a cellular environment conducive to virus persistence are, in part, dependent on virus manipulation of ion channel activity. Most excitingly, evidence has emerged that targeting ion channels pharmacologically can impede virus life cycles. Here, we discuss current examples of virus-ion channel interactions and the potential of targeting ion channel function as a new, pharmacologically safe and broad-ranging anti-viral therapeutic strategy.




Ion Channels as Therapeutic Targets for Viral Infections: Further Discoveries and Future Perspectives

Frank W. Charlton,1 Hayley M. Pearson,1 Samantha Hover,1 Jon D. Lippiat,2 Juan Fontana,1 John N. Barr,1 and Jamel Mankouri1.

Viruses. 2020 Aug; 12(8): 844.


Ion channels play key roles in almost all facets of cellular physiology and have emerged as key host cell factors for a multitude of viral infections. A catalogue of ion channel-blocking drugs have been shown to possess antiviral activity, some of which are in widespread human usage for ion channel-related diseases, highlighting new potential for drug repurposing. The emergence of ion channel–virus interactions has also revealed the intriguing possibility that channelopathies may explain some commonly observed virus induced pathologies. This field is rapidly evolving and an up-to-date summary of new discoveries can inform future perspectives. We herein discuss the role of ion channels during viral lifecycles, describe the recently identified ion channel drugs that can inhibit viral infections, and highlight the potential contribution of ion channels to virus-mediated disease.



Clinically Approved Ion Channel Inhibitors Close Gates for Hepatitis C Virus and Open Doors for Drug Repurposing in Infectious Viral Diseases

Thomas Pietschmann 1

J Virol. 2017 Jan 3;91(2):e01914-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01914-16. Print 2017 Jan 15.


Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes severe liver disease and affects ca. 146 million individuals. Novel directly acting antivirals targeting HCV have revolutionized treatment. However, high costs limit access to therapy. Recently, several related drugs used in humans to treat allergies or as neuroleptics emerged as potent HCV cell entry inhibitors. Insights into their antiviral modes of action may increase opportunities for drug repurposing in hepatitis C and possibly other important human viral infections.




Ion channels as antivirus targets

Xin Liang 1, Zhi-Yuan Li

Virol Sin. 2010 Aug;25(4):267-80. doi: 10.1007/s12250-010-3136-y. Epub 2010 Jul 28.


Ion channels are membrane proteins that are found in a number of viruses and which are of crucial physiological importance in the viral life cycle. They have one common feature in that their action mode involves a change of electrochemical or proton gradient across the bilayer lipid membrane which modulates viral or cellular activity. We will discuss a group of viral channel proteins that belong to the viroproin family, and which participate in a number of viral functions including promoting the release of viral particles from cells. Blocking these channel-forming proteins may be “lethal”, which can be a suitable and potential therapeutic strategy. In this review we discuss seven ion channels of viruses which can lead serious infections in human beings: M2 of influenza A, NB and BM2 of influenza B, CM2 of influenza C, Vpu of HIV-1, p7 of HCV and 2B of picornaviruses.